For many people, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) evokes images of poverty, suffering, and violence. And indeed, for the last two decades, the country has been plagued by conflict and bloody civil wars. It is currently among the poorest in the world, with 80% of its population living in poverty.
But the country is also incredibly rich in resources, especially in the eastern region. Home to some of the world’s rarest minerals including gold, coltan, carbonite, tin, and tungsten, the DRC supplies many of the key elements that are essential to our cell phones, laptops, and other electronic goods. One would think that a country so rich in valuable resources would not be mired in violence and the resultant poverty, but in fact, it is these very minerals that are fueling this conflict and financing African militias, who are then selling them to middlemen who supply these key ingredients to companies world-wide.
How do these militias secure control of these mines and trading routes? By looting villages for resources, displacing communities, killing the men who were the providers of the families, and using rape as a war tactic to control and suppress the women.
Described as ‘the rape capital of the world‘ by the United Nations, more than half a million women and girls have been raped in the last ten years alone.
So, what can be done?
Here’s the problem. It is very difficult for consumers to gauge whether their purchases are funding armed groups that are committing such atrocities, given the lack of a transparent minerals supply chain (Sound familiar? Fashion isn’t the only industry that suffers from ‘transparency problems’). This is why activists like Amani Matabaro and John Prendergast from the Enough Project have made it their focus to educate citizens about the conflict, and have recently released a company ranking system as a way of empowering consumers to make more responsible purchasing decisions regarding conflict minerals.
And what about the people, mostly women, who have survived the horrors of war, who are displaced and lacking the community that previously existed in their villages? This is where non-profit organizations like Mamafrica, are making a difference.
Mamafrica is a woman’s sewing cooperative based in Bukavu, a city on the border of the DRC and Rwanda that has become a refuge for “internally displaced persons.” When Ashley Nemiro, an aspiring Ph.D in counseling and psychology, started her work at the Panzi hospital in May of 2012 to conduct research on the efficacy of group therapy treatment for women who had been victims of gender-based violence, she was distressed not just by the trauma these women had gone through, but by the limited opportunities there were for them to support themselves and their families. It was then that she was fortunate enough to meet Congolese activist Amani Matabaro, who founded a program (AFBEK) supported by the community development organization Action Kivu, which funds sewing cooperatives and micro-finance loans for women as a means by which they can support their small businesses and take care of their families. Through her conversations with Amani the idea for a holistic organization that would empower women by providing education, a healing arts programs, and economic opportunity, began to develop. Amani in turn introduced Ashley to Aline Malekera, a Congolese woman with a B.A. in English and a powerful voice in the community, who became a partner and was instrumental as a translator and Finance Administrator. The two formed the cooperative from three sewing collectives: Centre Ushini, AFBEK, and Action Kivu. Mamafrica now serves over ninety women in Bukavu, most of whom have fled from the violence of rural eastern Congo.
I was able to interview Ashley Nemiro in person and Aline Malekera via email about their work in the organization, and how they hope it will improve women’s lives in Bukavu:
Nadia: So Aline, could you give us more background about the conflict in the Congo and how it has affected women there?
Aline: Before the war started in 1996 everyone had farms and fields to cultivate, animals to raise, and parents were able to feed and pay school fees for their children. But when the war started, most of people’s means were stolen, their houses were burned, their husbands killed, and their villages and communities destroyed. Many of these women are rejected by their husbands, family, and community if they are raped. And even though they have no support, they have to be strong, be everything, for their children.
Nadia: Why did you want to get involved with Mamafrica?
Aline: I have lived through many years of war, and I wanted to empower these women who have been displaced and rejected by their husbands and families. I feel determined to help these women understand that they can do something in their society, that their lives can change, if they are determined.
Nadia: Ashley, can you describe a little more in depth what you mean by a ‘holistic’ program?
Basically, Mamafrica is a three-phase program. When the women enter the program, they attend a six month healing-arts intensive course, which incorporates group trauma healing, meditation, counseling, yoga, and song and dance. They then complete a series of life sustainability education classes, where we teach nutrition, cooking, maternal child health, birth control, literacy, and financial responsibility. Then, we teach the women how to sew, tailor and embroider so that they can be employed by Mamafrica, where they make beautiful dresses, table cloths, and even yoga bags! And I should note that we allow the women to be independent and encourage them to be self-sufficient, so it is up to them how much time they want to invest in these programs.
Nadia: You mention self-sufficiency often. Do the women really have no other means of employment?
Ashley: You know what’s interesting? You know how a lot of the women make money here? By selling the overstocked items that are donated by Goodwill
in the West to churches in the DRC. A lot of these items are soiled clothing or just junk, stuff that the women can’t even use. And so the women take these items and sell them in the streets, and while it’s true that they can make money that way, it is also difficult for people in the DRC to manufacture their own clothes and export their products when you have that kind of flooding of [free] products from the West into the country. And 99% of the fabric is imported from China, which is why it is important for Mamafrica to use fabric manufactured in Africa, that is from Nigeria, DRC and Ghana. We purchase this fabric in bulk from a fabric vendor in downtown Bukavu.
Nadia: So when we talk about ‘sustainable fashion,’ how are you trying to make Mamafrica sustainable?
Ashley: We are really trying to create a new generation of leaders. In our new healing arts program we talk so much about being a leader, and what it means to be a leader. Because in my mind, when people ask how to change the Congo, it’s not up to the US or USAID, it’s changing the leadership inside the country. It’s about Congolese people changing the system. And that isn’t going to happen if the women don’t have any means of empowerment and can’t support their children. In Bukavu it cost $10 per child a month to attend school and this creates a challenge since many women have more than 7 children and the average wage is .20 cents a day. With the wages that the women make at Mamafrica, they are able to afford to send their children to school, pay rent for their homes, and feed their families. Aline travels to each school and pays the school fees each month to ensure that all our Mamafrica children are attending school. Our hope is that by changing these women’s lives, that positive change will trickle down to the children and change a community.
Nadia: Do the women just make clothes for women in the West?
Ashley: No, they make them for women in the DRC as well. We have a shop where many women in the community come to have clothing specially sewn for them including: school uniforms, wedding dresses, and children’s clothing. So many of these women love bright prints, perhaps because wearing these colors brings happiness to their lives. And since we have to tone down the colors a bit when we market to the West, it seems that these women really enjoy making brighter clothes for each other.
Nadia: Aline, do the women enjoy the sewing work?
Aline: Sewing is a craft that a lot of these women connect to, so it’s wonderful that they can make clothes as a way to be independent, earn money and buy food for their children. In addition they are getting training that helps them to
be independent, and their children who were unable to go to school are now attending school. They are getting food for their children and families after being paid each month. Also they are making friends and connecting with other women by working in groups.
Nadia: Could you share a success story?
Aline: Yes! Cibalonza is a woman with 5 children, and her life was honestly horrible before joining the center. Her husband abandoned her when he took another wife and left her to raise her 5 children alone. She was homeless and often times went days without feeding her children and herself. Since attending Mamafrica, Chibolonza has been able to earn money for her family, send her children to school and has made friends at Mamafrica that help her to care for her younger children when she is working. She rents a home for $10 a month and is able for the first time to provide for her childern. In October we referred Chibolonza to a partner organization where she started to receive microfinance loans and has been selling charcoal, avocados, and onions
in the market and earning a living that is more than she could ever have imagined in the past. I visited her children just two months later and was shocked by how much weight they have gained. To my mind, this is a true success story.
Nadia: Any last words ladies? Anything in particular you would like readers to be aware of?
Ashley: When people buy these products, I want it to be not just because of the cause behind it, but because they really love our product. We all want good quality products that will last, and that are made with love. These women have come so far, and our products truly reflect that.
Since starting Mamafrica and traveling to the DRC I have become overly conscious about every purchase I make while in the DRC and back in the United States, which is why we decided to describe Mamafrica on our website as ‘consciously connecting.’ I think it is important, especially during the holiday season, to think about the people that are suffering when we unconsciously consume clothing or the latest technology. We need to raise awareness about companies that directly help the lives of others, and to make a concerted effort to support them. At Mamafrica we want everyone to know that when they buy our products, some woman’s life has been changed. If you check out our site which details how we invest the money we receive, you will see that your purchase helps send a child to school, and helps put food on the table.
That’s a powerful and ethical way to consume. When we talk about ‘ethical consumerism,’ it is ultimately about being conscious of what you are purchasing. It goes so much more beyond the fabric that is laying on your body.
Aline: I want people to know that I am determined to help women in the Congo, but I also need other people to understand why there are so many problems here, and why we need support.
I really wish the West knew why the people in the DRC experience war everyday and how severely affected we are by this. Even if we are not directly in a war zone, we are suffering from the effects of a country that has been in civil war since the 90’s. I have lived in Bukavu my whole life and I have seen things that you could never imagine.
Women in Bukavu do not have the education or the vocational skills to allow them to earn an income. These women have suffered greatly and they really need to make their lives better. This can come from support from the West by purchasing our products! When we receive support, we can continue to teach women new vocational skills, purchase sewing machines for them, and allow them to work independently and once again gain confidence in themselves and their ability to provide for their children and give them a different life. I truly believe that if these ‘mamas’ are successful, that their children will have a better chance and the cycle of violence will be broken.
Mamafrica is currently looking to expand to a bigger building, which will allow for free drinking and bathing water, and more programs! Want to help? You can shop the boutique, make a donation, and contact the team for more information on how to get involved.
Would you like to learn more about the mamas behind the products? Click here to read about their amazing stories!
Looking for other ways to connect with Mamafrica? Check them out on Facebook!
Want to learn more about how the Congo’s conflict minerals make their way from the mines in eastern Congo to the cell phone in your pocket? Watch this informative video below that outlines how consumers can help end this violence:
- Looking for an overview of the Conflict Minerals Crisis? Check out RAISE Hope for Congo’s page here.
- Watch this inspiring TEDx talk by Congolese activist Bandi Mbubi, on the importance of pressuring companies for conflict-free phones.
- Want to take action? Click here and here for the different ways YOU can help, including how to make your town and campus conflict-free!
- Learn how the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act requires electronic companies who purchase minerals from the Congo to declare it clearly on their audits.
- Check out the film Stealing Africa, a 55 minute documentary that details how multinationals like Glencore are ‘sucking the continent dry.’
- Want to learn how the IMF and World Bank were involved in the sale of the mines that led to this conflict? You can read more here (‘Impoverishing a Continent’) and here (‘Why is the IMF Controversial?’)
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25 responses to “Mamafrica: Sewing Women’s Lives for a Better Future in Conflict-Ridden Congo”
Very nice piece. Two days ago I watched an investigative piece of journalism from Kenya directly tying gold mining and smuggling with the conflict. The gold about 2.5 tonnes smuggled into Kenya by the heads (generals) of the rebel groups to be sold and of course the money used to purchase arms to for the resistance.
Thank you so much for your comment! Wow I didn’t know that. Is there any way you could send me that piece? Would very much appreciate it 🙂
Here’s the link. If you need any clarification on it please let me know. It’s done by kenyan reporters for a local TV channel.
sorry I sent you the promo, here is the complete video
Thank you so much! I will try to watch it this weekend! Thanks for all your feedback 🙂
What a great project. Thanks for the introduction.
Thank you! They’re so inspiring and I am in awe of these amazing women.
The ever so debated ‘resource curse’ – the more resources you have, the more you are likely to be involved in never-ending conflict. ‘Fair trade’ – still not convinced such trade is as fair as we make it out to be. Of course it is a step up from what it was a few decades ago, but it’s not working. We buy fair trade (because it is fashionable to be green and showing your fair trade / frog sticker to everyone) without much education about what it does for people exactly. Check this article out: http://www.griffithsspeaker.com/Fairtrade/Ethical%20Objections%20to%20Fairtrade%20web.pdf
I am still grateful for the work of the people you have interviewed in this article, especially because I know Congolese women are probably carrying the burden of every single woman in the world on their shoulders. At the end of the day all we can do is try to be a citizen of the world, and feel responsible for the misfortune of a person a million miles away. And your dress is so cute!
Alas, another day, another opportunity to keep striving for change!
Thanks for the article, I will check it out. Although, to be clear, Mamafrica is not a ‘fair trade’ organization. It’s not certified fair trade. It’s a holistic non-profit that focuses on helping women to heal emotionally and physically, and then the economic empowerment allows women to support themselves and their family, as most of the women who come to Bukavu have little job skills. I will check out the article and get back to you. Thanks for your comment!
ok in that case i hope they remain the way they are.
I read over the article and thought it was pretty flawed. It seems the author is making assumptions about co-ops and doesn’t really know how fair trade works or what it’s purpose is. There are many hard-core free-traders out there who hate the idea of fair trade, and will publish these kind of ‘straw man’ arguments every once in a while, taking facts out of context. Don’t get me wrong, I’m open to critiques of fair trade (how it’s becoming increasingly corporatized, etc.), but to say it’s not ‘working’ is a false statement that comes from ideology, not fact. It’s important when looking at a movement to not rely solely on one piece of research, as there is a ton of stuff out there that has shown how life-changing it has been for farmers and artisans, and people I’ve talked to who can personally attest to that (if you want some great resources I can message you a ton of books on the subject, as this is all part of the research I’m currently doing on sustainability in the fashion industry 🙂
Also, I will say off the bat that I have met with numerous farmers and artisans who actually have been in the fair trade system, who have attested that it has indeed changed their lives. A woman from the cooperative Global Mamas, Hannah Dodoo, flew 22 hours to a recent Chicago conference to tell everyone that ‘if everyone practiced fair trade, the world will be at peace.” I spoke with a garment worker in the Dominican Republic who used to be a labor organizer at a sweatshop and now works for a Fair Trade company, who told me that the factory was also changing their community. Cotton farmers from India who work in fair trade cooperatives can now be ensured that toxic chemicals from pesticides are not harming either them or their children because they work with organic cotton (https://listengirlfriends.wordpress.com/2012/12/07/the-human-impact-of-the-textile-industry-pesticide-poisoning-farmer-suicides-and-how-organic-and-fair-trade-can-help/)
I have read most of the critiques of fair trade and will be addressing them in a future post, but I do think it goes so far beyond the whole kind of ‘shop for a cause’ mantra that your critique seems to addressing. I had a big issue with the whole Gap Red campaign for that very reason. For me, the big issue is making fair trade sustainable. If we keep our consumption rate the way it is then it will be difficult to maintain that system. Businesses are always going to want to sell the largest volume they can, so even if H&M offers a recycling initiative or Zara goes toxic-free, we’re still stuck in that system of fast fashion that encourages us to consume at a rapid pace. Anyway, I have a lot to say on this subject, will read the article and get back to you! 🙂
And thank you for the compliment on the dress! 🙂
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Mamaafrica sounds like a wonderful organisation. Also really interested to see the discussion in the comments with regard to Fair Trade. I still find it all a little confusing at times, I guess it would help of the difference between certified Fairtrade (as in cotton, coffee etc) and organisations that produce goods under Fair Trade principles, was more clearly defined.
Thank you so much for your comment! Yes, it is all very confusing, and I am actually writing an article right now on the Fair Trade labeling controversy that is currently going on…hopefully the post will clarify some of these questions, as there are so many wonderful organizations doing great work but don’t have the actual ‘label.’ Stay tuned! 🙂
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Here are some other videos I found on the issue. Love what you guys are doing, hopefully when I graduate I will be right there with you!
Wow, thank you for these links! The documentary is fantastic-but depressing 😦 Still, there is no excuse for people not understanding the consequences of their consumerism. Thank you!
Nice share, depressing to know the facts of life in africa!
Thanks for the comment! Yes it’s depressing, but keep in mind that there are many countries in Africa, and not all of them are as war-torn as in the DRC. Some countries are rather strong actually. It’s the mineral-rich region that is dealing with a lot of tragedy 😦
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